Anti inflammatory approaches to treating asthma and lung infective disorders. Aims were to assess the efficacy of topical application of 1% to 10% bovine retinol with a 1- to 1-3-month duration, to improve the control of acute bronchitis during a prolonged period of treatment, and to assess the safety. Materials were selected for inclusion based on potential safety and efficacy parameters and the ability to provide consistent clinical benefit.

Funding: This trial was supported by grants ES1RR024861 from the National Institutes of Health (R01 HL1003958-01) and K08AG004033바카라-01 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and by a grant from the Dut우리카지노ch Asthma Association (ZM-2012-05-0001-Z). KF and VF are independent consultants and are responsible for all aspects of this research. All funding has been provided by the Asthma Research Foundation and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.

Copyright: © 2014 Goyens et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

This paper builds on previous data showing that systemic doses of BRL have shown greater efficacy than topical applications for treating acute asthma during a prolonged period of treatment [11–14]. In an initial study we evaluated efficacy in children in whom bronchospasm was first observed within 9 days of the start of therapy; after 5-week treatment, a higher concentration (up to 7.5%) was delivered and increased efficacy in both bronchospasms was noted (P = 0.03; and Table 1 ).

A recent meta-analysis indicated that BRL is available to treat 2–5 bronchospasm episodes in a single day [19]. The dose, duration, and frequency of administration were examined in the current study and results indicate that BRL has excellent safety profile. These findings suggest that BRL can also reduce the duration of symptoms when used as a topical treatment for acute bronchitis.

It been well documented that systemic doses of BRL can affect immune responses [11]. Thus systemic applications of topical preparations of 1–3% BRL are not effective for asthma treatment. To test whether BRL could enhance the immune response, we determined if BRL could be delivered as a 1- to 2-month topical application without inducing clinically significant adverse effects [20].